College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Harriet Hartman: Professor, Sociology









Sociology for "Scientific" Eyes
Social Processes: Social Inequalities Bibliography


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A. Social Class

Bullard, R. 1990. Dumping in Dixie: race, class, and the politics of place.

Dumping in dixie, 2E. Westview Press.

Robert Bullard examines how the location of waste facilities in the Southern U.S. is influenced by the people who live there- their race, class, and access to political power.

Goode, E. 1999. For good health, it helps to be rich and important. New

York Times, Jun. 1. Online in GenderWatch database in Rowan University databases.

A surge in social research regarding social class, as measured by socioeconomic status to include income, education and other markers of relative status, and health reveals that social class is one of the most powerful predictors of health, more powerful than genetics, exposure to carcinogens, even smoking.

Lynch, John. 2000. “Income inequality and health: expanding the debate.” Social

Science & Medicine 51: 1001-5.

Silverstein, K. 1999. Millions for Viagra, pennies for diseases of the poor. The Nation,

269 (3): 13.

Silverstein discusses how global economic stratification affects the availability of health care and argues that high profitability based on the sale of “lifestyle” drugs, instead of the need to develop affordable life saving drugs for disadvantaged populations, drives the pharmaceutical market.

Wresch, W. 1996. Disconnected: Haves and have-nots in the information

age. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press.

Wresch discusses the social impact of the inequality of information flow available between and within the social classes.

B. Gender

AAC&U 1999. “Frequently Asked Questions about Feminist Science Studies.”

Bentley, J., & Adamson, R. 2003. Gender differences in the careers of academic

scientists and engineers: a literature review. National Science Foundation. Online

The study explores the gender inequality of women scientists and engineers in academia.

Brown, B. L. 2001. Women and minorities in high-tech careers. ERIC Digest 226.

Online in Rowan University databases

Brown discusses the educational practices and strategies for initiating and sustaining women and minority students in technology related careers.

CAWMSET (Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science,

Engineering and Technology) 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology. Washington, D.C.

Chang, J. 2002. Women and minorities in the science, mathematics, and

engineering pipeline. ERIC Digest. Online in Rowan University databases

This digest discusses science, mathematics, and engineering interest barriers and strategies for retaining women and minorities in SME and examines how community colleges are working to promote increased representation and success of women and minorities in SME.

Etzkowitz, H., Kemelgor, C., & Uzzi, B. 2000. Athena unbound: the advancement

of women in science and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A stimulating and forward-looking analysis of women's experiences in science and the barriers they face.

Hacker, S. 1989. Pleasure, power, and technology: some tales of gender,

engineering, and the cooperative workplace. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Hacker, S. 1990. Doing it the hard way: investigations of gender and

technology. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Hassan, F. 2000. Islamic women in science. Science, 290 (5489): 55-56. Online

The author discusses the contributions of Islamic/Muslim women to the sciences.

Henrion, C. 1997. Women in mathematics: the addition of difference.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

The author analyzes gender, race, and female participation in mathematical research within the context of the profiles of nine women in mathematics

Hughes, Gwyneth. 2000. “Marginalization of Socioscientific Material in

Science-Technology-Society Science Curricula: Some Implications for Gender Inclusivity and Curriculum Reform.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 37(5):426-40.

Jansen, S.C. 2002. Critical communication theory: new media, science, technology,

and gender. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

The author discusses gender in communication research with chapters that ask the questions “Is information gendered, and is science a man?”

Lederman, M., & Bartsch, I. eds. 2001. The gender and science reader.

New York: Routledge.

The anthology includes a section on women in science, a NSF study on issues facing women and minorities, a six-year longitudinal study of undergraduate women in engineering and science, and sections exploring science and identity and gender in science practice.

Leonard, Eileen. 2003. Women, Technology and the Myth of Progress. New Jersey:

Prentice Hall.

Long, J.S. 2001. From scarcity to visibility: gender differences in the careers of

doctoral scientists and engineers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

A report on the findings of the Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Panel for the Study of Gender Differences in the career outcomes of science and engineering Ph.D.s that discusses the qualitative finds of women with Ph.D.s and the correlated trends that causes the inequity of representation in the science and engineering fields.

Kessler, S.J. 1990. The medical construction of gender: case management of intersexed

infants. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 16 (1).

The author discusses the process in which doctors assign sexually ambiguous infants (intersexed infants) with a gender and biological identity.

McIlwee, J.S., & Robinson, G.J. 1992. Women in engineering: gender, power, and

workplace culture. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Gender, Stratification, Work: A study of the career patterns of women entering engineering during the late 1970s and early 1980s.

Schiebinger, L. 1993. Nature's body: gender in the making of modern science. Boston:

Beacon Press.

The author explores the influence of sex roles on scientists’ attitudes when creating the history, methodologies, and classification schemes that shape and guide science today.

Silver, Ann-Louise S. 1997. Lost talent: women in the sciences. Women & Health,

26, (4): 93. Online in GenderWatch in Rowan University databases.

A qualitative study using multivariate statistical models to reveal the factors and trends that cause women to leave the sciences.

Wertheim, M. 1997. Pythagoras' trousers: God, physics, and the gender wars.

New York: W.W. Norton.

The author contends that gender inequity in physics results from the religious origins of the field.

Wyer, M,M. Barbercheck, D.Geisman, H.O. Ozturk, M. Wayne (eds). 2001. Women

Science and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies. New York: Routledge.

Great collection addressing gender issues in science, from careers, advertisements about scientific careers, to the construction of scientific knowledge.

C. Race, Ethnicity, Minority Groups

CAWMSET (Commission on the Advancement of Women and Minorities in Science,

Engineering and Technology) 2000. Land of Plenty: Diversity as America’s Competitive Edge in Science, Engineering and Technology. Washington, D.C.

Clark, Julia. V. 1999. Minorities in science and math. ERIC Digest. Online in

Rowan University databases

This digest explores the lack of individuals, especially underrepresented minority students such as Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians, entering the fields of science and presents the obstacles, with suggestions to improve, that the education system perpetuates.

Collins, S. 1997. Black mobility in white corporations: up the corporate ladder

but out on a limb. Social Problems, 44 (1): 55-67. Can’t find online- need to reference back to original source.

Krueger, Alan. 2000. “The Digital Divide in Educating African-American Students and

Workers.” Princeton University Industrial Relations Section, Working Paper #434 (

Manning, K. 1984. Black Apollo of Science: The Life of Everett Just. Oxford University


McKissack, Jr. F.L. 1998. Cyberghetto: blacks are falling through the internet.

The Progressive, 62 (6): 20-23. Online in Academic Search Premier in Rowan University databases.

McKissack discusses the growing gap between whites and blacks in computer ownership and access and its implication in the future.

Norman, O. C. Ault, B. Bentz, L. Meskimen. 2001. “The Black-White ‘Achievement Gap” as

a Perennial Challenge of Urban Science Education: A Sociocultural and Historical Overview with Implications for Research and Practice.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching.38 (10):1101-1114.

Organ Transplant Association. (2004). Racial disparities. Retrieved April 11, 2005, from

D. Age

S. Wyatt, G. Thomas and T.Terranova. 2002. “They Came, They Surfed, They Went Back

to the Beach: Conceptualizing Use and Non-Use of the Internet” Ch. 2 in S. Woolgar, ed. Virtual Society, Oxford University Press.

Generational gap (among others) of internet use.

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