Week 6

"Completing" the Globe



Week 5 Outline    

Animated Map: Scramble for Africa

Map: World Empires ca. 1914
Map: Empires and World Trade
Map: Africa 1886 and 1914

Image: French Soap Factory

Image: ABCs for Baby Patriots 

Map: Mission Stations 1913

Map:"Commercial and Strategic Chart of the British Empire"
ImagesThe Suez Canal



Map: North Africa 1800
Map: African commerce ca 1840

ImageCasus Belli 
ImageBombardment (1830)
ImagesBattles with Al-Qadir 
French Setback (1836) 
Map: (French) Algerian Conquest and Resistance
Image: "Artichokes"

ImageWest Indian Regiment attacksTubab Kolong (1866)

Image: Fanti Volunteers 1870s

Cartoon: "Now then, how about those prisoners, King Theodore!" 
Images: March on and burning of Magdala 
Image: Baluchi Sepoys
Image: British leader

Image: Johan Potgieter, Trekboer
Image: Trekking 
Map: The Great Trek (Trickle)
Map: Xhosa Losses 
Image: Diamond Mine in Kimberly

Map: Indian Ocean Slave Trade
MapAbolition Lines Western Indian Ocean 
Image: Barghash Said (r. 1870-88)

MapMuhammad Ali's Nilotic Conquests 

Historic Map: Native Territories and European Possessions in Africa, 1876




Scrambles (aka "High" Imperialism)

Capacity/"Permissive Factors"

Economic Impetus 
A crisis of capitalism? 
Overproduction and new markets
Investment and resources 
--Raw Materials/"Magnificent African Cake"

Cultural Shifts (Cultures of Imperialism) 
Democracy, Public Opinion & the Civilizing Mission
Superiority self-evident? (Technology) 
Evangelism (and Protecting Missionaries)

Concepts of Great Power status
--"A Place in the Sun"
--Racing to "effectively occupy"  
Strategic Interests
The defensive "mind" of bureaucrats
--Or, "Men on the Spot"


Precursors (Nibbling the "Cake")

French in North and West Africa
Algeria (1830-48)
--French Debt, A Diplomatic Incident, & Social Imperialism
--'Abd al-Qadir and guerrilla warfare
--Methodical destruction and terror tactics 
--Settlers (Colons)
Senegal (1850-70)
--Jihadist resistance

British in West, Southern, East and North Africa
Trading "rights" in West Africa
--The Gambia and the Barra & Marabout Wars (1831-66)
--Steamships and the Niger (1850s-1890)
Punitive Missions for Recalcitrant African Leaders
--Asante (1826-74)
--Ethiopia (1867-68)
--Southern Africa (1820-79)
--White settlers and resources
Omanis and the Slave Trade (1873-76)
--Trading with Swahili
--Arabic Empire and "Legitimate" Commerce
Muhammad Ali and Egypt (1840-78)

Portuguese Holdovers
Angola and Mozambique


Industrial Revolution
The Long Depression (1873-96)
"Legitimate Trade" 

Social Imperialism
Kew Royal Gardens 
White Man's Burden

Suez Canal
"Official Mind" of Empire



Bourbons (Charles X) 
Hussayn Dey
Social Imperialism
Amir 'Abd al-Qadir (el-Kader)
Colons (Pied Noir) 



Cape Colony

Griqua (Bastards)
"Kaffir"/Caffer/ Xhosa
Cecil Rhodes

Image: Berlin Conference

MapWest African Forts (1870)
Map: Africa 1870
Map: Invading Armies West Africa
MapArmed Campaigns Southern & Central Africa
Historic Map: Africa 1886

MapIndigenous States in Africa 

Animated Map: Scramble for Africa

Text: Berlin Conference
Alexandria Bombarded 1882
Images: Abdul Hamid, Jules Ferry & Umberto


Image: Looting Benin 

Map"Sorting" East Africa (1884-1895)

Image: Arabic View of the Scramble

Image: African soldiers
Image: Sudanese soldiers, German commander in East Africa 
Image: Askaris East Africa 1890s
Image: Askaris Bukoba 1890
Image: Askari artillery

Images: British Bombardment of the Zanzibar Palace (1896) 

Map: Sudan late 19C
War in the Soudan!
Battle of Omdurman 1898

Image: Abyssinian (Ethiopian) soldiers
Image: Battle of Adwa (Adowa) 1896
Image: Menelik II

Process of the Scramble for Africa

"International" Legitimation
Stanley, De Brazza, and the Congo Basin (1874-82)
Dakar Rail laid (1879) 
Financial Conquests  
--Egypt: The Khedive, Debts, and the 'Urabi Revolt (1875-82)
--Tunisia: The Bey, "Rebels," and the Tunisian "Protectorate" (1881-2) 
Trick Treaties and Treaty Tricks
--"Peaceful" transfers of power 
Berlin Conference 1884-85
--"Radical departure"



Armed Invasion/Primary Resistance 
Companies and the State
Indigenous soldiers (or police) and local rivalries
Primary Resistance (Examples)
--British Out of the Cape: Zulu - Southern Africa (1879), Gold (1886), and Rhodesia (1888/1893-6)
--Muslim Leaders vs. French in West Africa: SamoriTure and al-Hajj Umar (1882-1898) 
--Britain against West African States: Asante, Benin, and Sokoto (1892-1903) (Igbo variant: 1910) 
--Central Africa: Belgians and Portuguese (renewed) 
--Germans in East Africa: Mrima Revolt (1888-90) and WaHehe Uprising-East Africa (1895-98)  
--Sudanese Successes and Failures: The Mahdists (1884-85) and Omdurman (1898) 
--Italians in the Horn: Somaliland and Ethiopian Adowa (1896)

Suez Canal 
Khedive Ismail Pasha (and Tewfik)
'Urabi Revolt 
Berlin Conference 1884-85 
Congo "Free State"  
Cecil Rhodes
British South Africa Co.
Rudd Concession

Primary Resistance 
"Man on the Spot"
Breech-Loading Rifles 
Punitive Expeditions 
Tukolor Empire 
Sokoto Caliphate 
Sultan of Zanzibar
Imperial British East Africa Co.
German East Africa Co. (DOAG)
Mahdi (Muhammad Ahmad) 
General "Chinese" Gordon
Maxim Gun 
Emperor Menelik





Map: French conquests Indochina
Map: Empire in SE Asia 1792-1885
Map: SE Asia 1870-1914

Map: Unequal Treaties


Cartoon: Second Opium War 1859
Image: French Army in Indochina 1885
Image: French colonial soldiers 1888
Image: French vs. Qing Navy 1884

Map: Dutch East Indies Scramble

Historic Map: German of Pacific 1859

Southeast Asia

Mainland: Britain and France
Singapore and Burma
French Indochina (esp. 1858-62 and 1881-85)
--Missionaries and merchants
--Strategic Value
--Second Opium War and China
--35,000 Soldiers

Insular: Britain, Netherlands, and Germany
Netherlands Extends "their" Indies
New Guinea (1879 expedition/1884 claim)


Unequal Treaties

Map: Russian Expansion

Maps: USA "Settlement" (whose?)  1850

Map: Indian Removals 1830s

Map: Indian Wars American West

Occupying Africa and America

Scramble for American West?

    To Week 7 outline


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