Week 9 - Nineteenth-Century
Commodity Wars

 


To Week 8 Outline

 

 

 

 

 


Image: Attack at Pagoda Point (1825)

Texts: Opium Wars

Map: Qing Expansion

Image: Chinese Cannons by Barrow (1804)
Image: Chinese Porcelain (1780)
Images: Tea Production 1800 / 1830
Image:Teashop (1820)
Image: Silkshop (1825)

Images: Guangzhou 1810 / 1820

Image: Chinese Hong Merchant (1840)
Image: Chinese Hong Merchant House
Cartoon: Lord McCartney & Qianlong (1792)
Cartoon: Progress vs. Qing

Images: Opium Production in Patna: Mixing - Balling - Drying - Examining - Stackin
Image: Opium preparation (1857)
Image: Opium fleet descends Ganges (1850)

Image: Opium Addicts in China poor & rich
Map: Opioid Epidemic China
Image: Opium as nurse

Image: Lin acts

Map: Opium Wars

Image: Battle Chuenpi 1839
Image: Failed River Chain 1841
Image: Irish and Sepoys "Fighting"/Fighting in China 
Image: Repulse at Ningbo

Image: Chinese Nemesis
Image: Nemesis Destroying War Junk (1841)

Image: Signing Treaty of Nanjing (1842)

Map: Unequal Treaties

Images: Second Opium War Photos (grisly)
Map: Qing Rebellions 19c

 

Core and Periphery, 19th-century Relationships
Manufactures, Raw Materials, Finance and Force
Evolution from Core to Periphery
-Qing China and the case of "India"
Evolution from Periphery to Core
-13 Colonies to United States
Persisting Periphery
-Spanish Americas and East Africa

Capitalism, Defined
1. Means of Production owned Privately (corporations/individuals)
2. Labor Commodified through Wages (*although forced labor commonly part of the system*)
3. Goal of Increasing Surplus (mechanization/specialization/fossil fuel energy)
4. Production and Social Relations organized generally through the operation of Markets.

OPIUM AND TEA

Qing Backstory
Fall of the Ming (17th century)/Decades "Cataclysm"
Multi-"racial" Empire
Qing Technology and Markets
"Chinese" Ideas about Trade
--James Flint's Mission (1759)
--Guangzhou System (esp. 1760-1840)

Demand for the East India Company
Tea-Drinking (in the World)
Factory Worker Discipline (Keeping up with Machines)
--1760-1800 British tea imports quadruple
--10% wages to tea + sugar (1800)
A Movement to Free Trade
Lord McCartney's Mission (1793)
Bullion Fears

Solution to the Trade Imbalance: Drugs!
Opium's development (Production in India)
"Narco-Military Empire"
--End of East India Co. Monopoly (1834)
--Chinese Consumption (1773-1839 x40)
Qing Reaction
Commissioner Lin's War on Drugs
Opium in the Metropole?

Opium Wars/Unequal Treaties
The Canton (Guangzhou) Opium Party
The First Opium War (1839-42)
--Early Qing Reaction
--British Government/East India Company Reaction
--Naval Supremacy (48 ships, steam ironclad Nemesis)
--Indian-British casualties ~500/Chinese ~20,000
--The Treaty of Nanjing (and other Unequal Treaties)
The Second Opium War (1856-60)
The "Arrow Incident"
The Decline of the Qing

Core
Periphery

 

 

Capitalism
Wage Labor
Commodification
Markets

Coal/Petroleum

 

 

Qing (Manchu) Empire
Taiwan
East India Company
Emperor Qianlong
Canton (Guangzhou)

Tea
Porcelain ("China")
Silk
Laissez-Faire
Consumer Revolutions
Silver
Kowtow
King George III
East Indianmen
Junks
Bullionism

Opium
Lin Zexu
Emperor Daoguang


Steamships
Ironclad
Canton (Guangzhou)
Sepoys
Grand Canal
Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
Unequal Treaties

Indemnity
Taiping Rebellion
"Ever Normal Granary" System
"Ever Victorious Army"




Map: Rise of Hindu States
Map: Conflict in South Asia, late 18c
Map: English Conquests in India

 

Image: Maratha footsoldier 1775
Images: Sepoys (1811- )
Image: Sepoy 1760

Image: Mysore Rocket Attack 1780
Image:
Tipu Rocketeer

 

 


Map: Spread of Tea Cultivation
Images:
Tea growing in Assam 1850

Images:
Scenes from the Mutiny

Image: Executions and Hangings

 


Governing India

Replacing the Mughals
The Marathas Confederacy
Muslim Independents
The East India Company
--The East India Co. Army (Sepoy backbone)
--Military Successes (1790-1830s)
Indirect Rule

Indian Lives
Inflexible Tax Extraction ("Laws of Leather, Laws of Iron")
The Bengal Famine (1769-73) and others
The Decline of South Asian Textile Industry
Peasantization/De-Urbanization
The Decline of Indian Capital
The Introduction of British Capital
--"Empty" and "Ghost Acres" in the Himalayan Foothills
The (Re)Invention of Tradition
First War of Independence/Sepoy "Mutiny" (1857-59)
--Disaffected Soldiers
--Unhappy Peasants
--Revolts and Successes
--British Relief/Victory
--The Results
----Empress of India/The End of the Mughals








 

Mughal Empire
Marathas
Mysore/Hyderabad/Qajar
Seven Years' War
British East India Company
Bengal
Sepoys
Maharajas (Indian Princes)


Famine
Cotton
Peasants
Protectionism
Tea
Assam
Deforestation
Caste
Brahmins
Sepoy Mutiny/First War of Independence (1857-59)

Lucknow/Kanpur/ Delhi
Rifled Musket
Cartridge (and Grease)
Crimean War (1854-56)
Persian War (1856-57)
Second Opium War (1856-60)

 

 

 

Map: Slave origins and destinations
Map: Indian Ocean Trading Cities
Map: Large African States ca 1880
Image: Barghash Said (r. 1870-88)
Image: Shirazi at Saadani (L 19th C)

Image: Zanzibar Shop
Image: Zanzibar Slaves

Map: Inland Trade Routes (Caravans)
Image
: Porters
Image: Big Man Kingo (1880s)


Image: Elephant Trap!
Map: Inland Merchant Empires 19th C
Image: Tippu Tip


Image: Nyamwezi Weavers 19th C

ELEPHANT TEETH

Banian Merchants and Fashion in the Indian Ocean
-Yemen Settlement and Problems
-Banians in Mozambique
-Indian Ivory Demands

Abolitionism and Slavery in East Africa
Haiti's Independence (1791)
West African Squadron (1807- )
Slave Destinations
-Sugar and Coffee Production in the Indian Ocean
-Sugar and Coffee in Brazil and Cuba

Ivory and Slavery in East/Central Africa
Omanis in Zanzibar
-Tariffs, Trade, and Production
Big Men Upcountry
--African Pioneers
--Caravans
--Accessing World Trade/Capital
Elephants and Enslavement
--The "Ivory Frontier"
--Elephant Guns
--Soldiers and Slaves
--Metropolitan Consumers
Uneven Development
--Shift to the West Coast (Congo)



Gujarati
Textiles

Abolition
Emancipation
French Revolution
Haitian Revolution
Bourgeois Revolutions
Sugar
Mascarene Islands
Zanzibar
Sultan Seyyid Said (r. 1804-1856)
Busaidi
Cloves
Plantations
Nyamwezi
Caravans
Porters
"Merikani"
Richard Burton
Tippu Tip
Rugaruga
Ivory
Industrial Revolution
Consumer Revolutions
Underdevelopment

Chart: Habsburg Family "Tree"


Map: Latin America 1800 vs. 1830



Image: Simon Bolivar

Map: Date of Independence across Latin America

Map: South America 1830-1920

 



Images: Workers mining Guano

Image: Coolies packed aboard ship

Image: Spanish Shell Valparaiso

Image: Aftermath of Chilean-Peruvian Battle
Map: South American boundaries before and After Saltpeter War

Text: New Guano Rush (2008 Article)
Images: Contemporary Guano Shovelers

Maps: Global Migrations since 1500

BIRD DROPPINGS

Latin American Independence
-The War of Spanish Succession (1701-13)
--Bourbon Reforms (1760s) and Criollo Grievances
--French Wars
--Haiti's Independence Wars(1791-1804)
--Wars of Liberation (1817-25)
--Identities and Social Structures
--Caudillismo and Constitutions

Post-Colonial Latin American Politics
Problems of Stability
--Loyalty to Institutions?
--Independence Wars' Damage & Debt
--Colonial Ghosts/Global Economy
--Conservative vs. Liberal
--Government Efficacy
--Caudillos and Coup de'tats
--Dispossed and Marginal

Bird Crap in World History
Nitrogen and Nitrates
Transportation costs in the Age of Steam
Chincha Islands (1840-76)
--British Capital
--Harvesting Guano (Labor Problems)
--Imperial Interventions
--Spending and Debt
Saltpeter War (1879-83)

 

Bourgeois Revolutions

Mestizos
Bourbon
Criollos
Peninsulares
Simon Bolivar

Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) Constitutions
Popular Sovereignty
Silver
Export-Oriented Economy
Monoculture
Caudillos
Steamships
Railroads

Nitrates
Biological Old Regime
Steamships
Saltpeter
Guano
Kulis
("Coolies")
Opium
"Dutch Disease"

Ironclads

 

 

Image: Mexican elites/American Soldier
Image: Poster recruiting Americans
Image: Americans bombard and storm Veracruz
Image: Americans take Mexico City

Map: Mexican-American War
Map: U.S. Territorial Growth

GOLD AND COTTON

North American States
Mexico and Political Instability
Texas' War for Independence (1835-36)
Manifest Destiny
The Mexican American War (1846-47)
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
California Gold
--Pacific Rim Economy
--Bicoastal U.S.A.
--Latin American Impact



Constitutions

Mexican-American War
Manifest Destiny
Alamo
Santa Anna
James Polk
'49ers
Gold
Cotton
Kulis "Coolies"
Latifundia

Image: Battle of Puebla

Image: Execution of Max

The Short-Lived Empire of Mexico (1862-67)
Deep in Debt
Defeats, victories, and raids
An Austrian emperor for a French Empire in Mexico?!


Ferdinand Maximilian (Maximilian I)
Habsburgs

 

Map: Amerindian West linguistics

Map: Americas Slave Populations ca. 1830

 

Map: Replacement fields for the Cotton Famine

 

Image: Chinese "Coolies" on Louisiana Sugar Plantations 1870

American Emancipation(?)
Decline of Slavery in the Western Hemisphere
Slave Revolts
Industrialization and the United States
--Northern Factories
--Southern Suppliers
American Expansionism
The American Civil War
--Industrialized Warfare
--Global Ramifications
Post-War North American Society
--Frontiers"men"
--Questions of Race/Questions of Work
--Amerindian Experiences
--Industrialization of Agriculture

 

Emancipation ("Abolition")

Railroads
Ironclads
"Cotton Famine"
Homestead Act (1862)
Manifest Destiny
Barbed Wire (~1875)
Reservations
Kulis ("Coolies")
Sharecroppers
Proletarianization

 

 

 



 


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