Jess W. Everett, Ph.D., P.E.

    Professor, Civil & Environmental Engineering

    Director, Engineering Learning Community

    Director, Sustainable Facilities Center

  College of Engineering

  Rowan University

  Glassboro, NJ 08071 | 856-256-5326

  Office - 234, Engineering Hall (New Bulding)

Resume | SustainableLiving | Truth & the Internet | Unreliable News Sites | Spaghetti Bridge

Rowan has many interesting student clubs, including:



Undergraduate students work on projects through the Engineering Clinic.

Current Projects

NJARNG Energy–BIM Intern Program (replaced NJDMAVA Energy & Water Interns)

Rowan students assist the NJ Army National Guard by creating Building Information Models (BIM) of NJARNG facilities using 3D laser scanning technology and BIM software. They also implement NJARNG's education awareness program through quarterly newsletters and presentations. Finally, they monitor and update the NJARNG's master energy plan.

Rowan students participate in this project through clinic and paid internships. They work with NJ DMAVA staff and Rowan Faculty (Profs Everett and Riddell).

NJDMAVA Facilities Management Internship Program

Rowan students assist the NJ Department of Military and Veteran Affairs as it sustainably manages its facilities in New Jersey. This includes the assessment of cloud based energy and facility management software programs, performing site visits to collect data, monitoring energy, water, and sewage flows, conducting life cycle assessments to identify the best options for equipment repair and replacement, verifying energy savings from implemented efficiency measures, and performing energy security inspections.

Rowan students participate in this project through clinic and paid internships. They work with NJ DMAVA staff and Rowan Faculty (Profs Everett, Riddell and Krchnavek).

RU-NJDMAVA Energy Audit Center

Rowan students inventory energy consumption at military facilities in NJ, e.g., armories. Energy Audits involve modeling the energy consumption of a building and identifying opportunities to save on utility bills. The cost of the audit is often recovered in as little as one year. Specific activities include:

  • Conducting Site Audits to measure energy and water consumption;
  • Developing Energy Consumption Models;
  • Using EQuest to model heating and cooling;
  • Evaluating the payback of various energy and water saving alternatives; and
  • Making recommendation to NJ DMAVA.

Rowan students participate in this project through clinic. Participation in this clinic can lead to paid internships and a paid graduate student position. Students work with NJ DMAVA staff, the Rowan Energy Audit Center's master’s student, and Rowan Faculty (Profs Everett, Riddell, Bhatia, and Krchnavek).


Engineers Without Borders is an international group of student and professional chapters that help communities in need around the world solve engineering problems. RU EWB has worked with communities in the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, The Gambia, Thailand, Senegal, South Dakota, Honduras, and locally. Check out example reports for projects in El Salvador and The Gambia.

Our current project is in Valle Verde, the Dominican Republic. Valle Verde is located in a rural area ~ 7 kilometers southeast of the City of Santiago de los Caballeros. It is home to ~250 families with a total population of approximately 1,200. The community suffers from lack of access to water. A government agency, INAPA, provides water to this community every 7 to 15 days, and the arrangement is informal. Additional water is collected by some community members from local, open water sources. Much of the water is improperly stored in uncovered containers. Both INAPA and local water is contaminated with fecal coliform. Bottled water is purchased for drinking and cooking, at great expense to these impoverished people. RU EWB conducted an Assessment trip over winter break and is currently identifying alternative solutions. Once an alternative is selected, will commence on a detailed engineering design.

Rowan students participate in this project through clinic and RU EWB events. Strong levels of participation can lead to travel to participating communities around the world and EWB conferences. Students work with a professional mentor, EWB USA staff, and Faculty (Profs. Everett, Mehta, and others).


PathFinder is an active website coded in html,, c#, JavaScript, and pathML, a PathFinder specific markup language. Content consists of images, html, xml, and mathML. Equations coded in mathML are used both for display and solving exercises. The website assembles ebooks on the fly using pathML to access content as needed. Content is stored modularly, so a given variable, equation, article, etc. is stored once but can be called up to form a part of any ebook chapter. PathFinder ebooks have randomly selected and generated exercises that are automatically graded. The website provides instantaneous feedback to both students and professors regarding performance on online exercises.

The learning sequence supported by PathFinder is:

  • Prepare for class;
  • Demonstrate preparedness by completing BEFORE exercises;
  • Attend class and participate in active learning; and
  • Demonstrate skill acquisition by completing AFTER exercises.

PathFinder ebooks incorporate online exercises to achieve the second and fourth steps. BEFORE-exercises motivate students to read chapters before class. AFTER-exercises provide students an opportunity to demonstrate what they’ve learned after materials are covered in class. Both types of exercises constitute a significant portion of a student’s grade.

PathFinder is used to deliver ebooks in Freshman Clinic I & II, CE Systems, Sustainable Civil & Environmental Engineering, And Engineering Graphics.

Past Projects

NJDMAVA Energy & Water Interns

Rowan students assist the NJ Department of Military and Veterans Affairs' Facilities with energy & water planning by:

  • Analyzing energy and water data;
  • Developing and implementing an energy awareness & education plan with the goal of reducing costs by 20 %;
  • Describing effective case studies, e.g., on innovative solar arrays and LED lighting; and
  • Collecting data and assessing alternative solutions that help NJARNG meet federal requirements.

Example activities include:

  • Studying innovative engineering solutions, e.g., zero emission vehicle fleets, triple-net-zero buildings, etc.
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) calculations for projects.
  • Preliminary analysis and conceptual designs / models for projects.
  • Finding grant, rebate, and funding opportunities for projects.
  • Benchmarking, tracking, and analyzing energy and water usage / production data.
  • Reviewing utility bills for rebates, overpayments, and tariffs.
  • Developing energy models using Building Information Modeling (BIM) software.
  • Working with RU Energy Audit Center students and GIS / Environmental interns.

Rowan students participate in this project through clinic and paid internships. They work with NJ DMAVA staff, the Rowan energy intern manager, and Faculty (Profs Everett, Riddell and Krchnavek).

Energy Audits

With funds from various entities, Rowan University is inventorying energy consumption in buildings. Energy Audits involve modeling the energy consumption of a building and identifying opportunities to save on utility bills. The cost of the audit is often recovered in energy savings in as little as one year. Energy Audits can also include an assessment of the suitability of solar power.

Bio-infiltration Basin & Rain Gardens

With funds from NJ Department of Environmental Protection, working with the Camden & Gloucester County Soil Conservation Districts, Rowan University built a bio-infiltration basin and three rain gardens demonstration sites on campus. See more information here.


With funds from NSF, Rowan University has developed activities that use aquariums to teach middle, high school, and college first year students engineering concepts. This project is in partnership with the National Science Foundation.

Solar Array Design

With funds from various entities, Rowan University has developed preliminary designs for arrays with capacity ranging from 50 to 500 kW.

Wind Assessments

With funds from various entities, Rowan University is assessing various locations in NJ regarding the suitability of siting wind turbines. Assessments can be done with anemometers on 30 m towers or with SODAR.

Zero Waste

Rowan University evaluated Zero Waste opportunities for the Boro of Pitman. The Zero Waste movements views discards as resources, not waste. Rowan University evaluated the town's recycling program and assessed opportunities to reduce and eliminate waste.

Wastewater Reuse

With funds from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Rowan University evaluated wastewater reuse in Gloucester County. Wastewater reuse involves using wastewater, i.e., the effluent from wastewater treatment plants, for a variety of purposes, such as irrigation, toilet flushing, cooling water, fire protection, and aquifer recharge. Wastewater reuse can increase the supply of usable water for humans. It can also be used to return streams to historical flow levels or prevent saltwater intrusion. The wastewater reuse project at Rowan University assessed potential wastewater reuse in the Northern portion of Gloucester County and evaluated a specific project involving the Pitman Golf Course, the new SJ Technology Park, and the proposed Rowan West Campus.


With funds from the US Environmental Protection Agency, Rowan University completed demonstration and outreach projects on Watershed Evaluation and Education focusing in NJ Watershed Management Area (WMA) 18, in close proximity to the main Glassboro and satellite Camden campuses. The first project was located in the highly urbanized Waterfront South area in the City of Camden, and centered on working with the City of Camden to identify potential nonpoint pollution sources around Newton Creek and develop a community outreach program for community residents. The outreach activities included faculty and student presentations on nonpoint source pollution, their impact on human health and the environment, and prevention options. Contamination of soil and groundwater via nonpoint source pollution were demonstrated using simple visual experiments for a non-technical audience. The second project was in the municipalities of Glassboro, Pitman and Mantua Township, and focused on the Chestnut Branch of Mantua Creek. This creek is of environmental importance because it is the headwaters for Alcyon Lake, and flows adjacent to the nearby Lipari Landfill. At one time, the Lipari Landfill was among the most contaminated sites on the EPA Superfund cleanup list. Successful remediation of the site and surrounding area has improved environmental quality, but problems such as nonpoint source pollution and litter still exist throughout the watershed. This project seeked to improve water quality in the Chestnut Branch watershed through collaborative partnerships between Rowan University, municipalities on the stream, and local K-12 schools.


With funds from the Air Force and various other entities, Rowan University worked with Earth Sciences Inc. to develop BiRD (Biogeochemical Reductive Dechlorination). BiRD can be used to clean up sites contaminated with Trichloroethene (TCE). A food source and sulfate are introduced into the contaminated zone. Sulfate-reducing bacteria consume the organic and sulfate, generating hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with iron mineral (present in most sediments), generating iron monosulfide and pyrite. Iron monosulfide and pyrite react with TCE, destroying it. The food source can be injected in liquid form (e.g., Sodium Lactate) or placed in trenches that intercept the groundwater (e.g., mulch). Sulfate can be introduced to the subsurface dissolved in water (e.g., Magnesium Sulfate) or placed in trenches (e.g., Calcium Sulfate).


With funds from the Air Force, Rowan University worked with Earth Sciences Inc. to develop AMIBA(Aqueous and mineral intrinsic bioremediation assessment). AMIBA can be used to assess past and predict future natural cleanup at site contaminated with fuels or fuels and chlorinated compounds. If natural cleanup produces acceptable results, significant money can be saved over active cleanup. AMIBA differs from other natural attenuation protocols by using both dissolved and mineral indicators.


With funds from the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium/Department of Energy, Rowan University worked with the Oklahoma Conservation Corporation (OCC) on AIT, alkaline injection treatment. AIT is an innovative way to lessen the environmental impact of acid mine drainage from abandoned coal mines. In AIT, alkaline ash from coal combustion is used to neutralize mine waters in the mine, before they enter the surface environment through seeps. A demonstration project is underway at Red Oak mine, in Eastern OK.

Garden City

With funds from the National Science Foundation, Rowan University turned Sooner City--a virtual city developed at the University of Oklahoma--into Garden City. Garden City is used by Civil and Environmental Engineering students as they work on homework and projects. For example, they can go to the Garden City web site for design codes and data. This initiative will provide a more realistic context for student work.

Field Experiences

With funds from the National Science Foundation, Rowan University is developing field experiences for undergraduate engineers, ranging from automatic data acquisition, to sampling soil, water, and air.

REU in P2

With funds from the National Science Foundation, the College of Engineering at Rowan University sponsored a summer research experience for undergraduates (REU) in the area of Pollution Prevention.


With funds from the National Science Foundation, Rowan University is creating a sound engineering studio that will be used by Engineering, Physics, and Music students.

Web-based Curriculum Assistor

Using internal funds, Rowan University developed a prototype for a web-based curriculum display program that could be used by students and faculty. Students would use Pathfinder to track important learning outcomes through their curriculum. For example that could see how concepts they learn in the freshman year are used in classes in the sophomore, junior, and senior years. Faculty would use the display to ensure that concepts are taught in a timely and efficient manner. Pathfinder will be further developed as time and funds are made available.

North Camden Brownfield Outreach

With funds from the Technical Outreach Service for Communities (TOSC), Rowan University developed materials that will help residents of North Camden participate in the redevelopment of abandoned industrial sites (Brownfields) in their community.



Should I follow a particular Homework Format?

Follow the Freshman Engineering Clinic I (FEC I) Homework Format.

Charts - If you are using a Chart to estimate numbers by direct reading (NOT fitting an equation then using the equation to estimate values), the Chart must be (a) large (fill a complete page), (b) drawn with care using ruler, French curve, etc., and (c) drawn on graph paper with close grid lines. You may use a computer to create a directly read chart only if it produces a Chart that can be "read" at the required level of accuracy (i.e., has enough grid lines/cm).

How should I solve typical engineering homework problems?

Use the Engineering Problem Solution Method described in FEC I. In addition:

  • Read the problem.
  • Think about it, make sure you understand (a) the system described by the problem and (b) the desired answer(s).
  • Consider possible solution methods, then solve the problem on SCRAP paper, using drawings and/or writing down appropriate equations and what is known and unknown. You may not need to obtain the final answer, but you should at least map out your solution method.
  • On "good" paper, write down the word problem (unless you include the assignment handout), then draw a neat figure (unless absolutely not needed or appropriate). Next to or underneath this figure, write down the given information. Indicate the source of any given information that is not from the problem description, e.g., data from a Table in a book, information from a website, etc. State any important assumptions.
  • Write down any equation you use first in variable/standard form (e.g., F = ma) then solve for the appropriate unknown still using just variables(e.g., a = F/m). Finally, insert numbers with units (e.g., a = 2.0 N / 100 kg) and determine the numerical answer (e.g., answer: a = 0.02 m/sq-s).
  • Variables and values should not appear out of "thin air". Variable names (or symbols) must be standard or defined in the problem. Values must come from the list of givens, an identified outside source (e.g., Table A.2 in Systems Engineering, by Jane Doe), or a calculation using an appropriate equation. Diagrams are often useful in defining variables, especially lengths.
  • When using software to solve problems (e.g., Excel or Mathematica) be sure to show your work. For example, show a table of outputs, suitably documented. An example of a documented table is given in the next item, just below.

How should I document Table or Spreadsheet Calculations?

An example is given below. Show equations and sample calculations below a printed table or spreadsheet.

When printing, do not split tables or spreadsheets over multiple pages without repeating the headings.

∑ = 100 (n)
∑ = 1
∑ = 100
∑ = co = 2.1

pi = p (yi,r) = (ryi/yi!) e-r, e.g., for y1, p1 = p(0,2) = (20/0!) e-2 = 0.135 (The Poisson distribution is used to estimate probabilities)

ei = pi·n, e.g., for y1, e1 = 0.135·100 = 13.5.

ci = (ni - ei)2 ei-1, e.g., for y1, c1 = (n1 - e1)2 e1-1 = (11 - 13.5)2 13.5-1 = 0.47.

co is the sum of the ci column, i.e., co = 0.47 + 0.32 + 0.00 + 0.21 + 0.45 + 0.10 + 0.53 + 0.34 = 2.1

What are Prof E's grading abbreviations?

Cross-outs and Slash-outs:

  • If I cross-out (X) an answer, it indicates that the answer is wrong and (1) the method used to get it was incorrect or (2) I couldn't figure out where you made your mistake.
  • If I slash-out (/) an answer, it indicates that the method was correct, but one or more of the input values was incorrect.

CBYN - Correct by your numbers: method is correct, but answer is wrong because of incorrect inputs

CLR - Work needs to be clearer

DOC - Document work better

DST - Don't split table (between pages)

DS - Don't Split

E - Excelent

FBD - Free Body Diagram

FE - Formula Error

FHF - Follow Homework Format

G - Good

GR - Grammar problem

IA - Identify your answers

Int - Interpret

Int - Interpret

IP - Identify the problem, e.g., by number

ME - Math Error

NaS - Not a Sentence

NTR - Neater!

PN - Page Numbers

PS - Include the problem statement.

RDR - Work is out of order

RoS - Run on Sentence

RW - Rewrite (a sentence, paragraph, or section)

SP - Spelling problem

SPC - See previous comments

SFT - Spell out first time, e.g., "landfill gas (LF)" the first time, then you can use abbreviation in the rest of the document.

TFSF - Too Few Significant Figures. You learned significant figures in FEC I. There are many tutorials on the Internet.

TI - Too informal, usually applied to a paper or report.

TMSF - Too Many Significant Figures. You learned significant figures in FEC I. There are many tutorials on the Internet.

TS - Too Small

UNITS - You didn't include the units

VG - Very Good

XPLN - Come see me and explain your work



How do I access the Open Area?

The open area is a file storage area on the Rowan network that professors can make accessible to students. If you are using an on-campus computer and have access to the open area, it should show up in your "computer" folder. If it doesn't, map the drive "\\\common\Openarea". In older version of Windows, use Run. To access the open area from off campus use

How do I use Lab or Field Notebooks?

Laboratory - Used to record information for experiments conducted in the laboratory. Use a Laboratory notebook w/ numbered pages, duplicate page sets; e.g., Boorum #09-9088.

Field - Used to record information for experiments of observations conducted in the field. USe an all-weather Field book, e.g., the "Rite in the Rain All-Weather Environmental Field Book."

Information to be recorded


  • Name & Date
  • Team members (if working with others)
  • Weather Information (if in field)
  • Laboratory conditions (temperature, humidity) if appropriate
  • All Equipment used (make, model, serial number...)
  • Diagrams as appropriate
  • Tables of data, with plots as appropriate
  • Observations!
  • Anything else appropriate

What is a Memo?

Follow the guidance given in FEC I. Much of it is repeated here.

Memos are used to communicate relatively simple information. They can range from informal to formal. Though often less than 1 page in length, they can be longer. Memos begin with “To”, “From”, “Subject” and Date information, as shown below.

To: Professor Smith
From: Fred Q. Student
Subject: Water Filter Lab

The rest of the memo is the body, consisting of a written narrative describing a request or a response to a request. A request memo is used to obtain information or to ask for a particular action to be taken. A request memo might arrange a meeting or ask for a summary of a meeting. A response memo describes the results of a particular action, e.g., the results of a meeting.

Memos may request or report on a:

  • Meeting;
  • Field trip;
  • Literature search or annotative bibliography;
  • Laboratory or field experiment;
  • Poll or survey; or
  • Product design, fabrication, or testing.

The body of a memo begins with the goal of the described request or activity. It should mirror specific request(s) that prompted the creation of the memo. Use the language of the request(s) to help the reader find each answer easily. This can be done with headings or by simply mirroring the request language.

A number of rules of thumb can be applied to memos. They do not have a cover page. As with any communication, information obtained from the work of others must be cited. Memos with citations must include a reference list at the end. Equations, figures and tables should be included, as necessary. The normal rules for equations, figures and tables are followed. Though rare, an appendix may be included to provide data or sample calculations. In an email memo, an appendix would often be sent as an attachment. The typical rules for sample calculations are followed. More information on citing, referencing, equations, figures, tables, and sample calculations is given elsewhere.

What is a letter of transmittal?

A letter of transmittal is a short letter or email that describes an accompanying or attached longer document. A letter of transmittal should include the title of the longer document, a very brief description of its contents, and the reason for sending it. In some cases, it may be appropriate to sign the letter of transmittal.

What is the Laboratory Report Format?

Follow the guidance given in FEC I. A Laboratory Report is used when more than a memo is needed.

Cover Page




Materials and Equipment


Results and Discussion




What is Project Report Format?

Cover Page

  • Title
  • Authors / Affiliations
  • Date
  • Submitted to...

Abstract or Executive Summary (separate page)
An Abstract is ~250 words that introduce the issue, give a little background, and finish with some important results/conclusions. Basically, a summary. Executive Summaries are used for long report and can be several pages long. Both are a stand-alone section.

Introduces issue addressed by Report, gives purpose of Report. Briefly outlines report.

Narrative literature review giving reader enough background (science/engineering) to understand the problem and what you did.

Methods and/or Materials and/or Field Site and/or Alternatives (as appropriate, might even be more than one section)
Describe any unique methods, materials, or field sites you used.

Analysis of Alternatives or Results (as appropriate)
Narrative describing analysis of alternatives or results of experiments/observations.

Conclusions should be based on the results presented. Summarize and discuss the most important findings. It is usually appropriate to discuss what should be done in the future (or even what you would do if you could do the project over). Other than the future work portion of the conclusions section, nothing new should be introduces.

Acknowledgements (optional)

Use a reasonable format, such as the one used in FEC I. Be consistent. Use 'Author Year' Citing.


Note: this is a general format, and can be applied to experimental research, field demonstration, conceptual design, and final design reports. Use the portions of the headings given above that are appropriate. For conceptual or final design reports, make sure you address the design steps, e.g., problem identification, problem definition (can be like a mission statement), search (how/where you obtained needed information), constraints, criteria (things you can measure to assess design success), alternatives, analysis, decision, specifications, and communication.

Important tables an Figures should be included in the body of the report. Less important Figures and Table may be included in the Appendix. All should be mentioned in the body, otherwise they must not be needed!

What is the Research Paper Format?

Cover Page

  • Title
  • Authors / Affiliations
  • Date
  • Submitted to...

Abstract [Optional for short papers]
For research papers of significant length, include an abstract of about 250 words that introduces the issue, gives a little background, and concludes with some important results/conclusions. Basically, a summary.

Introduces issues addressed by paper, give purpose of paper. Briefly outlines paper.

One or more major sections (titles to be determined by you)
Use these sections to describe the various important topics covered by the paper.

Conclusions should be based on the information presented in the previous sections. Summarize and discuss the most important findings.

Acknowledgements [Optional]

Use a reasonable format, such as the one used in FEC I. Be consistent. Use 'Author Year' Citing.

Appendices [Optional]

How do I include Tables, Figures, and Equations?

Tables and Figures should appear in a document soon after the first mention in the text (unless they are given in an appendix). If you are using a full page for each table or figure, it should appear on the page after it's first mention. When referring to a specific table or figure, the word is capitalized (e.g., "Table 1 is used to show the results of the first experiment"). At the top of all tables, write "Table", then the number of the table, then a colon, a space, and the title (e.g., "Table 1: Results of the first experiment"). The same is done for figures, except the word "Figure" is used instead of "Table" and the title appears at the bottom. Figures are graphs, plots, drawings, schematics, or pictures (everything but a table). Always be consistent. Use the same format for all tables. Tables in a document are numbered consecutively. So are figures and equations.

Equations should be indented. At the right side of the same line, number the equation, as shown in the example below.

F = m a


where F = force, N; m = mass, kg; and a = acceleration, m/s2.

Tables, Figures and Equations are each numbered consecutively (Table 1, 2, 3,...; Figure 1, 2, 3,... & Equation 1, 2, 3,...).

How do I do Citations & References?

References are used to acknowledge the work of others. You should use references whenever you site information (data, facts, concepts,...) that are not your own. Of course, quotations are always referenced. Technically, you should not use images (pictures, tables, figures) from the work of others without written permission. However, for work that will not be published (e.g., your school work) it is generally allowed, but you must include the source of the images following the reference format. Referencing consists of citations in the text and a list of references at the end.

Citations - Unless otherwise indicated, citations in the text should use 'Author Year' format, e.g., "Some soil bacteria can use PCE and TCE as analogs for naturally occurring electron acceptors facilitating reductive dechlorination (Weid et al. 1998)." or "Butler and Hayes (1999) reported abiotic reductive dechlorination of PCE and TCE by chemical grade FeS." A reference with more than two authors should be shown as in the first example, i.e., "Weidemier et al. 1998". "et al." is a Latin phrase meaning "and others".

When two or more references are used which would otherwise look the same in the 'Author Year' format, use letters to differentiate, i.e., "a", "b", etc. In the text, such citations should look like "(Weid et al. 1998a)" and "(Weid et al. 1998b)"or "Bulta and Hays (1999a)" and "Bulta and Hays (1999b)". The same letters should be included in the reference list, also appended to the publication year, as shown below.

Bulta, D. and H. Hays (1999a) Microbial ecology, Benjamin/Cummings, New York, N.Y.
Bulta, D. and H. Hays (1999b) "Fundamentals of Microbial Ecology", Bioremediation Journal, 2(5):210-234.
Weid, M., J. Font and P. Ebert (1998a) “Iron and sulfur mineral analysis methods”, Bioremediation Journal, 2(3&4):259-276.
Weid, M., F. Delta and D. Mentle (1998b) “Iron and sulfur mineral analysis results ”, Analysis Journal, 5(4):25-34.

References - Use the reference formats given in FEC I, unless told otherwise. If you have not taken FEC I, use any reasonable reference system. Be consistent!

What is an Annotated Bibliography?

Annotative Bibliographies are often used to collect information about a new scientific or technical topic. Each entry is a short summary of the important information, related to the topic of concern, found in one reading, e.g., a book, book chapter, scholarly article, trade journal article, website, or even a personal communication. Start each entry with the full reference of the work to be annotated. Use the FEC I reference format, if possible. Follow this with a paragraph to a page of text describing the work, as appropriate. Descriptions of scholarly work will often include a description of the goal of the work, the methods used, the important results, and the major conclusions.

How do I keep a Work Log?

Sometimes students are required to keep a record of the the hours they've worked on a project, just like an engineer sometimes charges his or her hours to specific projects. Keep track of your hours in Excel, using the format mgiven below. Sum up your hours at the bottom of column 2.

Semester Fall
Year 2004
Project Site Remediation
Name Jane Q. Student
Week ofHours (decimal)Description
2/3/200410.2Read all of the reports provided by Prof. Everett and summarized the reports assigned to me
2/10/200411.0Learned the SOPs for AMIBA
2/17/20049.8Ran samples from MD Site, did AMIBA and TOC analyses. Entered data into excel spreadsheet

How do I Round and manage Significant Figures?

You learned rounding and significant figures in FEC I. If you did not take FEC I, there are many tutorials on the Internet.

How do I use Acronyms?

Acronyms are formed from the first letter(s) of a series of words. For example, LCA is the acronym for "life cycle assessment". Unless it is very common (e.g., "USA"), all acronyms should be defined the first time they are used. This is done as shown in the example that follows. "A life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed by...". Once so defined, the acronym can then be used in place of the original series of words for the rest of the document. In long documents, however, it may be reasonable to redefine acronyms, for example, upon first use in each chapter. This is especially true of works that may only be read in part. It is also advisable in long documents to include a List of Acronyms between the table of contents and text.

What are some useful AutoCAD shortcuts?

DRAWING UNITS: Use the Drawing Units dialogue box to change the format of lengths and angles. Please note that the "Insertion Scale" only changes the assumed units of objects inserted into AutoCAD. It DOES NOT change the units AutoCAD assumes when you create objects using the drawing tools. Imperial AutoCAD assumes inches, unless you add a single quote after a number, e.g., 1 is an inch while 1' is a foot.

LAYOUT: Get a layout from a file (dwg or dwt) by right-clicking an existing layout and selecting "From Template".

SCALE: Double click inside a viewport to make it MODEL space (double click outside to turn it back into PAPER space). Select a viewport scale by first positioning a drawing within the chosen layout at the maximum possible size. "Zoom Extents" or "Zoom Window" will often help with this. After zooming, the inverse of the scale factor will show in the "Viewport Scale" drop down list in the bottom bar. Take the inverse to determine the scale factor and use the value to identify an acceptable existing or custom scale. It is best to determine the needed scale(s) before creating annotative objects, that way, you can add the needed scale as they are created. Once you know the layout scale, make it the annotative scale in MODEL space. This will show annotative objects and discontinuous line types properly in MODEL space, relative to drawn objects. Set your scale in PAPER and MODEL space as soon as possible.

ANNOTATIVE OBJECTS: Annotative objects, such as text or dimensions, re size themselves to print at a selected size regardless of the viewport scale. Always put annotative objects on their own layer, e.g., text or dimensions. In PAPER space, dimensions will only print if the object "owns" the viewport scale. Add a scale to an object by selecting it, right-clicking and selecting "Annotative Object Scale", and adding the desired scale. Add a new annotative scale to more than one object at once by selecting multiple similar objects. One easy way to do this is to select one object and right click and select "Quick Select" or "Select Similar". Set the annotative scale in MODEL space to see annotative objects at the size they will print relative to drawing objects. If the chosen annotative scale is not one an annotative object owns, it will still show in MODEL space, but not at the correct relative size. Set your scale in PAPER and MODEL space before you create annotative objects.

LINES: When using non-continuous lines (e.g., dashed), an improper scale can cause the line to look continuous (e.g., if the scale is too small so you cannot see gaps between dashes or if the scale is too big so a dash fills the screen) or even make it disappear (e.g., if the gap between two dashes fills the viewing area). There are a number of system variables that can be used to control how non-continuous lines are displayed. Use LTSCALE to change the global scale of line types. Giving it a value greater than 1 makes the dashes and spaces bigger. If MSLTSCALE = 1, Line types in MODEL space are scaled by the annotation scale (a drop down box on the bottom bar). Set it to 0 and they are scaled to the MODEL space “view scale”. If PSLTSCALE = 1, AutoCAD shows line types at the same scale relative to PAPER space regardless of the viewport scale, i.e. a line type with dashes 0.25” long will have dashes 0.25” in any viewport (regardless of viewport scale) and on the layout outside of any viewports. In general, it is best not change an object's linetype scale. If a discontinuous line object is not printing properly, check it's linetype scale as it may have been set improperly. In most cases, it should be 1, occasionally 0.5 might be better.

  • System Variable Settings: Set LTSCALE, MSLTSCALE and PSLTSCALE to 1. IMPORTANT: Type REGENALL or REGEN in the command line if you don't see what you expect. Occasionally, a drawing looks better with LTSCALE set to 0.5.
  • Line Weights: To see line weights in model space, toggle the "SHOW/HIDE Line weight" button on the bottom bar. To change how they are exaggerated in MODEL space, right-click, select Options, select User Preferences, select Lineweight Settings, and change the slider. To make lines thicker in PAPER space make them at least 0.7 mm as small changes (e.g., 0.3 mm) don't show up. It's best to change this for an entire layer, rather than individual objects.
  • Discontinuous Lines & MODEL space: If discontinuous lines do not show in MODEL space, set the MODEL space Annotation Scale to the scale you intend to print at. It is a drop down box on the bottom bar. You may need to run the REGEN command to make the change visible.

LAYERS: If objects on a layer do not print, check the Plot column in the Layer Manager. Do not use the DefPoints layer, it is used by AutoCAD to manage dimensions and does not print. Always put objects on appropriate layers as it makes changing properties easier.